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Post Independence
The topics under this section have been divided into various eras as given below.

Nehruvian Era

Aftermath of partition
Integration of the princely states
Issue of official language (this recurs in most eras)
Reorganisation of states
Tribal consolidation and issues
Foreign policy of Pandit Nehru
Shastri Era

Official language issue
Food shortage
Economic crisis
Indo-Pak war
Indira Gandhi Era

Official language
Split in congress (diminishing of Congress hegemony in regions)
Issue of inflation
Green revolution
Punjab crisis – Operation Blue Star
Land reforms
Bank nationalisation
Emergency
Naxal movement
1971 war with Pakistan
Janta movement
Rajiv Gandhi Era

Environment (focus on this topic for the first time by the government)
Anti-defection law
Women movements – Dowry Prohibition Act, Shah Bano case
Modernisation of army
Panchayati Raj
Monthly current affairs- Oct 2019
STUBBLE BURNING IS NOT THE ONLY CULPRIT
Sample question-
Any solution to Delhi’s air pollution problem must look at farmers’ economic conditions, science and policy change in Punjab. Explain.
The current case-
 Air pollution in Delhi has always been a topic of discussion during Deepavali.
 Almost everyone gets into action, the Supreme Court of India and top echelons of the
Government not excluded, while children are forced to breathe polluted air.
 Airwaves are filled with immediate “band-aid” type solutions and television experts finally come
around to just one issue — stubble burning by farmers in Punjab.
 Therefore, the solution also gets simplified; prosecute those who burn stubble (the stick) give them happy seeders by the thousands (the carrot).
An oversimplification-
 Ifthe problemwasthatsimple,itwouldhavebeensolvedlongago.
 The simplification of the narrative to stubble burning and the argument that all that smoke that
comes out of Punjab’s paddy fields lands in the National Capital Region (NCR), particularly in the capital city of Delhi, may not stand scientific scrutiny considering the fact that wind speeds, dispersal rates and settling down of particles are governed by laws of science.
 Reportedly,therehasbeenanincreaseof3%inaerosolloadingattributabletocropresidue burning during October and November every year.
 The “city centric” argument is that Punjab now produces 25% more rice than what it did 15 years ago, which is good for the country, but bad for Delhi.
 However, no data was presented on the impact of burning of biomass in urban Delhi, coal firedovens(tandoors)andcoal-basedindustries,coal-basedpowerplantsintheoutskirtsof Delhi, the exponential increase in sport utility vehicles, or SUVs, in the NCR and so forth.
The major solutions concerning the Punjab cultivation are-
 Reduce paddy area/production, allow farmers to plant/transplant paddy before June and distribute “happy seeders”.
 Punjab was never a traditional rice cultivator. It took up rice cultivation in response to the national policy of food self-sufficiency.
 They achieved the highest productivity in the country and contributed maximum among all States to the central pool of rice procurement.
 Punjab dug deeper to get groundwater and caused long-term damage to itself.
 Attempts at diversification did not take off because of the difference in net farm returns and
market risks.
INDIA’S FOOD BASKET MUST BE ENLARGED
Sample question- Agrobiodiversitycanhelpimprovethecountry’spoorrankingintheGlobalHungerIndex.Coment. The current case-
 Indiaisranked102intheGlobalHungerIndex(GHI)outof117 qualifiedcountries.
 Hunger is defined by caloric deprivation; protein hunger; hidden hunger by deficiency of
micronutrients.
 Nearly 47 million or four out of 10 children in India do not meet their potential because of
chronic undernutrition or stunting.
 This leads to diminished learning capacity, increased chronic diseases, low birth-weight infants
from malnourished parents. Nutrition garden-
 Recently, the Ministry of Human Resources Development brought out school ‘nutrition garden’ guidelines encouraging eco-club students to identify fruits and vegetables best suited to topography, soil and climate.
 These gardens can give students lifelong social, numerical and presentation skills, care for living organisms and team work, besides being used in the noon-meal scheme.
 Agrobiodiversity — relating to diversity of crops and varieties — is crucial in food security, nutrition, health and essential in agricultural landscapes.
 Out of 2,50,000 globally identified plant species, about 7,000 have historically been used in human diets.
 Genetic diversity of crops, livestock and their wild relatives, are fundamental to improve crop varieties and livestock breeds.
 Across the world, 37 sites are designated as Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), of which three are Indian — Kashmir (saffron), Koraput (traditional agriculture) and Kuttanad (belowsea-levelfarming).
 OurpromisinggeneticresourcesincludericefromTamilNadu(Konamani),Assam(Agnibora) and Kerala (Pokkali), Bhalia Wheat and mushroom (Guchhi) from Himachal Pradesh and rich farm animal native breeds — cattle (42), buffaloes (15), goat (34), sheep (43) and chicken (19).
 For instance, moringa (drumstick) has micro nutrients and sweet potato is rich in Vitamin A. There are varieties of pearl millet and sorghum rich in iron and zinc.
Development goals-
 The UN Sustainable Development Goal 2 advocates for Zero Hunger and the Aichi Biodiversity Target focuses on countries conserving genetic diversity of plants, farm livestock and wild relatives.

Buildup-2020
 It emphasises that countries develop strategies and action plans to halt biodiversity loss and reduce direct pressure on biodiversity.
 TheCentreforBiodiversityPolicyandLaw(CEBPOL),apolicyadvocacyunitoftheNational Biodiversity Authority, came out with recommendations to increase India’s agrobiodiversity in 2019.
 These include a comprehensive policy on ‘ecological agriculture’ to enhance native pest and pollinator population providing ecosystem services for the agricultural landscape.
 It suggested promotion of the bio-village concept of the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) for ecologically sensitive farming; conserving crop wild relatives of cereals, millets, oilseeds, fibres, forages, fruits and nuts, vegetables, spices etc. for crop genetic diversity healthier food; providing incentives for farmers cultivating native landrace varieties and those conserving indigenous breeds of livestock and poultry varieties.
 The recommendations also include encouraging community seed banks in each agro-climatic zone so that regional biotic properties are saved and used by new generation farmers; preparing an agrobiodiversity index, documenting traditional practices through People’s Biodiversity Registers, identifying Biodiversity Heritage Sites under provisions of the Biological Diversity Act, 2002; and strengthening Biodiversity Management Committees to conserve agrobiodiversity and traditional knowledge.
 To conserve indigenous crop, livestock and poultry breeds, it is recommended to mainstream biodiversity into agricultural policies, schemes, programmes and projects to achieve India’s food and nutrition security and minimise genetic erosion.
Source-
https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op -ed/indias-food-basket-must-be- enlarged/article30109818.ece?homepage=true
WHY THREE RECENT REPORTS SUGGEST WE MAY BE LOSING THE FIGHT AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
Sample question-
The growing intensity of wildfires and their spread to new corners of the globe raises fears that climate change is exacerbating the dangers. Explain how reports commemorate the fact.
The current case-
As the leaders of the world’s nations assemble in Madrid for the 2019 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP25) beginning December 2, recent news on the global fight against climate change has been consistently disappointing.
Consider the following reports-
The Emissions Gap Report
 The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) flagship Emissions Gap Report, which went online on Tuesday (November 26), said in its executive summary: “The summary findings are bleak. Countries collectively failed to stop the growth in global GHG emissions, meaning that deeper and faster cuts are now required.”
 Despite scientific warnings and political commitments, GHG emissions continue to rise, including by China and the United States, the two biggest polluters.
 GHG emissions have risen at a rate of 1.5 per cent per year in the last decade, stabilizing only briefly between 2014 and 2016.
 Although the number of countries announcing net zero GHG emission targets for 2050 is increasing, only a few countries have so far formally submitted long-term strategies to the UNFCCC.
 In 2030, annual emissions need to be 15 GtCO2e lower than current unconditional NDCs [Nationally Determined Contributions; the heart of the 2015 Paris Agreement] imply for the 2°C goal, and 32 GtCO2e lower for the 1.5°C goal.
The World Meteorological Organization
 The WMO, a specialized agency of the United Nations mandated to cover weather, climate, and water resources, reported that the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide — all major greenhouse gases — have increased in the atmosphere since the middle of the 18th century.
The Production Gap Report
 The Production Gap Report made public earlier this month said that “governments are planning to produce about 50% more fossil fuels by 2030 than would be consistent with limiting warming to 2°C and 120% more than would be consistent with limiting warming to 1.5°C”.

 This report — which follows in the footsteps of the UNEP’s Emissions Gap Report and other reports that review countries’ greenhouse gas emissions and compare them with the emission levels needed to meet global climate goals — is the “first assessment of countries’ plans and outlooks for fossil fuel production, and what is needed to align this production with climate objectives”.
 The production gap is the largest for coal, the report said — “by 2030, countries plan to produce 150% (5.2 billion tonnes) more coal than would be consi stent with a 2°C pathway, and280% (6.4billiontonnes)morethanwouldbeconsistentwitha1.5°Cpathway”.
Source-
https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-3-recent-reports-suggest-we-may-be- losing-the-fight-against-climate-change-6140000/
A very imp point is keeping focus and not letting ur guard down.

It’s important to unlearn too. Very often we are trapped in our old comfortable ways and unwilling to experiment and learn.

Learn to be honest in critically evaluating oneself. Identify ur mistakes. Ur strengths.
Zero down on competencies u have to acquire.

Get out of comfort zone.
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WHY ARE THERE OBJECTIONS TO THE TRANSGENDER PERSONS BILL
Sample question-
Does the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill address issues of gender and identity? Does it consider the appeals and the concerns of the community?
The current case-
 Parliament has made into law the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2019, which had been framed for the welfare of transgender persons.
 The Bill was passed in the Lok Sabha on August 5 this year, a month after its introduction in the House, and the Rajya Sabha cleared it on November 26, with a last minute move to refer it to a Select Committee being defeated in a voice vote.
 Thecommunityhadorganisedprotestsacrossthecountry,urgingchangestotheBill,claiming that in the form in which the Central government had conceived it, it showed a poor understanding of gender and sexual identity.
What were the objections to the Bill?
 Activists had problems right from the beginning, starting with the name.
 ‘Transgender’ was restrictive, they argued, and it showed a lack of understanding of the
complexities in people who do not conform to the gender binary, male/female.
 The Bill was meant to be a consequence of the directions of the Supreme Court of India in the National Legal Services Authority vs. Union of India case judgment, mandating the Central and
State governments to ensure legal recognition of all transgender persons and proactive
measures instituted for their welfare.
 While the Act is progressive in that it allows self-perception of identity, it mandates a
certificate from a district magistrate declaring the holder to be transgender. This goes against
the principle of self determination itself, activists argue .
 One long-pending demand has been to declare forced, unnecessary and non-consensual sex reassignment surgery illegal, and to enforce punitive action for violations.
 While the Act envisages the setting up of a National Council for Transgender Persons to provide the institutional framework for its implementation, suggestions on the composition of such a council, or the demand to set up a working group for a Council for Intersex Persons were also ignored.
What is the historical context?
 In 2013, the government set up an expert committee to study the problems of transgenders and recommend solutions.
 The committee, comprising experts from various fields and members of the community, also looked at past experience as in the State of Tamil Nadu, which had set up a welfare board for

transgender persons, and made recommendations right from allowing a ‘third gender’ in official
forms, to setting up of special toilets, and customising health interventions.
 In 2016, the Government introduced its own Bill in the Lok Sabha and it was referred to a
Standing Committee, which made a number of recommendations including defining the term personswithintersexvariations,grantingreservationsforsociallyandeducationallybackward classes, and recognition of civil rights including marriage, partnership, divorce and adoption.
 However, with the dissolution of the 16th Lok Sabha (2014-19), that Bill lapsed. What is the future?
 While the community is miffed that the Bill has become an Act without any effort to make valid or relevant changes to its original composition, it worries about how implementation will address the pressing needs of the community.
 ItonlyhopesthattheNationalCouncilforTransgenderPersonswillallowforamorefavourable implementation of the law, and thus provide more elbow room for genuine representations of the community that the Bill itself failed to accommodate.
Source-
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/why -are-there-objections-to-the-transgender-persons- bill/article30125894.ece
THE LAWS ON RAPE AND SEXUAL CRIMES
Sample question-
How have the laws on rape and sexual crimes changed over the years? When was the death penalty clause included?
The current case-
After the rape and murder of a veterinarian in Hyderabad on November 28 and the burning of a rape survivor in Unnao, Uttar Pradesh, on December 5, there has been an outcry for justice for the victims. Within and outside Parliament there has been a clamour to make the criminal justice system tougher on an offender committing sexual crimes against women and children.
What has been the system in place?
 Rape’ as a clearly defined offence was first introduced in the Indian Penal Code in 1860.
 The codification of Indian laws began with the enactment of the Charter Act, 1833 b y the British
Parliament which led to the establishment of the first Law Commission under the chairmanship
of Lord Macaulay.
 The first Code of Criminal Procedure was enacted in 1861, which consolidated the law relating
to the set-up of criminal courts and the procedure to be followed in the investigatio n and trial of the offence.
What did the IPC say?
 Section 375 of the IPC made punishable the act of sex by a man with a woman if it was done against her will or without her consent.
 Section 376 provided for seven years of jail term to life impri sonment to whoever commits the offence of rape.
Are the laws gender neutral?
 FollowingthedirectionoftheSupremeCourtinapublicinterestlitigation(PIL)initiatedbya non-governmental organisation to widen the definition of sexual intercourse in Section 375 of the IPC, the Law Commission in its 172th report recommended widening the scope of rape law to make it gender neutral.
 While the rape law in India even today remains gender specific, as the perpetrator of the offence can only be a ‘man’, the 172nd report led to the amendments in the Indian Evidence Act in2002.
Are rape laws stricter now?
 The nationwide public outcry, in 2012, following the December 16 gang rape and murder in Delhi, led to the passing of the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act in 2013 which widened the definition of rape and made punishment more stringent.

 Parliament made the amendments on the recommendation of the Justice J.S. Verma Committee, which was constituted to re-look the criminal laws in the country and recommend changes.
 The 2013 Act, which came into effect on April 2, 2013, increased jail terms in most sexual assault cases and also provided for the death penalty in rape cases that cause death of the victim or leaves her in a vegetative state.
 It also created new offences, such as use of criminal force on a woman with intent to disrobe, voyeurism and stalking.
 The punishment for gang rape was increased to 20 years to life imprisonment from the earlier 10 years to life imprisonment.
What about offences against minors?
 In January 2018, an eight-year-old girl in Rasana village near Kathua in Jammu and Kashmir was abducted, raped and murdered by a group of men.
 This led to the passing of the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2018 which for the first time put death penalty as a possible punishment for rape of a girl under 12 years; the minimum punishment is 20 years in jail.
 Another new section was also inserted in the IPC to specifically deal with rape on a girl below 16 years. The provision made the offence punishable with minimum imprisonment of 20 years which may extend to imprisonment for life.
Source-
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/what-are-the-laws-on-rape-and-sexual- crimes/article30233033.ece
Dear All
Go through these topics and sample qustions with answer, and write in your own words in short.

these topics are from current affairs and try to write 1 answer daily.
All the best 👍